Before making edits to the website please read these important reminders

Support for math formulas

Mathematical formulas are supported on this webpage via MathJax and/or KaTeX, powerful external Javascript libraries. We refer to their respective documentations for full details.


  • KaTeX renders math much faster, but it is under an active development and thus can render with errors

  • To render with KaTeX, include the math formulas in a .md file in surrounding single dollars or \\(\\) (for inline math), and double dollars or \\[\\] (for display math)

  • For example, code $\int_0^T t\,dt=\frac{T^2}2$ produces this: $\int_0^T t\,dt=\frac{T^2}2$.

  • Display formula example: \[\int_0^T W_t\,dW_t=\frac12\bigl(W_T^2-T^2\bigr).\]

  • To get display math with dollar signs one needs to use double dollars and put this math expression onto a separate line. Otherwise the math will render inline.


  • The fallback mechanism is MathJaX, it is used to render the logos on this page, using the code <script type="math/tex">\mathrm{\LaTeX}</script>

  • Display math can be done with MathJaX as <script type="math/tex; mode=display">\mathrm{\LaTeX}</script> as below:

  • Complicated macros or whole mathematical texts pasted onto a page might not render correctly with either of the engines.